Monday, May 18, 2015

Tracking Warren Buffett's Berkshire Hathaway Portfolio - Q1 2015 Update

During Q4 2014, Berkshire Hathaway's (NYSE:BRK.A) (NYSE:BRK.B) US long stock portfolio decreased ~2% from $109.37B to $107.13B. The top-five positions account for over two-thirds of the portfolio: Wells Fargo (23.88%),Coca-Cola (15.14%), International Business Machines (11.92%), American Express (11.06%), and Wal-Mart (4.64%). There are 45 individual stock positions many of which are minutely small compared to the overall size of the portfolio.
Warren Buffett's writings (pdfs) are a treasure trove of information and are a very good source for anyone starting out on individual investing.
New stakes:

None.

Stake Disposals:

None.

Stake Increases:
International Business Machines (NYSE:IBM): IBM is Buffett's third-largest stake at 11.92% of the portfolio. The original position was purchased in Q3 2011 at prices between $157.54 and $185.21. Since then, the stake has gone up by almost 40% through periodic purchases. Last five quarters have seen minor buying and the stock currently trades at $173. Berkshire's cost-basis on IBM is at around $170. Buffett is very bullish on IBM and controls ~8% of the business. For investors attempting to follow Buffett, IBM is a very good option to consider for further research.
Deere & Company (NYSE:DE): DE stake was first acquired in Q3 2012 when around 4M shares were purchased at prices between $75.11 and $82.70. The position remained steady until Q3 2014 when an additional ~3.6M shares were purchased at prices between $82 and $91.38 - Berkshire avoided disclosing DE stake in Q3 2014 by making use of the "section 13(f) Confidential Treatment Requests". Last quarter, the position was increased by another 125% at prices between $80 and $91. This quarter saw a marginal increase. The stock currently trades at $89.13. The stake is at 1.42% of the portfolio and Buffett controls ~5% of the business.
Phillips 66 (NYSE:PSX): The 2% of the US long portfolio PSX stake as of Q4 2013 was reduced to a 0.71% stake in Q1 2014 at prices between $70.67 and $80.35. The position was further reduced by one-third the following quarter at prices between $76.69 and $86.33. This quarter saw an about-turn: ~14% increase at prices between $59 and $80. The stock currently trades at $81.05. Berkshire's cost-basis on PSX is much lower.
Precision Castparts (NYSE:PCP): PCP has seen steady buying in the last two quarters. Q4 2014 saw a ~37% increase at prices between $218 and $243 and this quarter saw another ~47% increase at prices between $200 and $241. The stock currently trades at $216. The stake is still very small at 0.82% of the US long portfolio.
Twenty First Century Fox (NASDAQ:FOX) (NASDAQ:FOXA): FOXA is a minutely small 0.20% of the US long portfolio stake established last quarter at prices between $31.77 and $39.01 and increased by ~31% this quarter at prices between $32.80 and $38.40. The stock currently trades at $33.99.
US Bancorp (NYSE:USB): USB, a 3.41% stake has been in the portfolio since 2006. The position was tripled during the 2007-2009 timeframe and since then was reduced by around 15% overall as of EOY 2012. In Q2 2013, ~17M shares were purchased at prices between $32.27 and $36.15. This quarter saw a 4.57% increase at prices between $40.94 and $45.12. Berkshire's cost-basis on USB is ~$32 and the stock is trading well above that price at $43.93. Buffett controls 4.7% of the business.
Wells Fargo & Co. (NYSE:WFC): WFC is Buffett's largest stake at 23.88% of the US long portfolio, well ahead of Coca-Cola (NYSE:KO) which is at 15.14%. This quarter saw a ~7M share stake increase at prices between $50.72 and $56.17. The previous significant activity was in Q2 2013: over 18M shares were purchased at the time at prices between $34.66 and $38.20. The stock currently trades at $55.52. Berkshire's average cost-basis is at around $25.
Stake Decreases:
Bank of New York Mellon Corp (NYSE:BK): BK is a 0.78% of the US stock portfolio stake. The bulk of the original position was purchased in Q2 2012 at prices between $19.51 and $24.67. The stake was increased by 30% in Q2 2013 at prices between $26.70 and $30.55 and since then had been kept relatively steady. Last three quarters have seen a combined ~16% reduction at prices between $35.95 and $41.53. The stock currently trades at $43.09.
Charter Communications (NASDAQ:CHTR): CHTR is a 1.08% of the US long portfolio position. It was established in Q2 2014 at prices between $118 and $158 and more than doubled in Q3 2014 at prices between $151 and $164. Last quarter saw a further ~25% increase at prices between $140 and $170. This quarter saw a minor ~3.5% reduction. The stock currently trades at around $181.
National Oilwell Varco Inc. (NYSE:NOV): NOV is a minutely small 0.09% of the US long portfolio stake. The original position was established in Q2 2012 at prices between $60 and $80.67. It was increased by ~19% in Q2 2013 at prices between $64.14 and $71.57. Last four quarters have seen a combined ~78% reduction at prices between $47.46 and $65.53. The stock currently trades at $51.27.
NOTE: The implied performance of this position by the prices quoted above is negatively skewed because of the effect of National Oilwell Varco's NOW Inc. spinoff. The terms called for NOV shareholders to receive one share of NOW Inc. for every four shares of NOV held.
Liberty Global PLC (NASDAQ:LBTYA) (NASDAQ:LBTYK): The minutely small 0.25% position in Liberty Global established in Q4 2013 at prices between $37.50 and $44.50 (adjusted for the 03/2014 stock-split) was increased significantly to a 0.57% position in Q1 2014 at prices between $40.37 and $46. The stake was further increased by ~17% in the following quarter at prices between $38.49 and $45.61. Last two quarters had seen marginal buying while this quarter saw a marginal reduction. The stock currently trades at $49.43 and the stake is at 0.84% of the US long portfolio.
MasterCard Inc. (NYSE:MA), Viacom (NASDAQ:VIAB), Visa Inc. (NYSE:V), & Wabco Holdings (NYSE:WBC): These are very small (less than ~0.60% of the US long portfolio each) stakes that were decreased marginally this quarter. Berkshire controls 6.6% of Wabco Holdings.
Kept Steady:
Restaurant Brands International (NYSE:QSR): QSR is a 0.30% of the US long portfolio position established last quarter at prices between $35 and $42. The stock currently trades just outside that range at $42.14. The stock started trading in December 2014 following a merger/rename transaction between Tim Hortons and Burger King Worldwide - QSR has already increased ~22% since the first day of trading (12/10/2014). There was heavy activist involvement previously and the latest filing show Bill Ackman directly owning 38M shares (18.80% of business). Berkshire's stake in the business is at around 4.2%.
Suncor Energy (NYSE:SU): SU is a small 0.61% of the US long portfolio position first purchased in Q2 2013 at prices between $27.40 and $32. Last year saw a ~24% increase at prices between $27.74 and $43.08. The stock currently trades at $30.42.
DaVita Inc. (NYSE:DVA): DVA is a 2.93% of the US long portfolio position that was aggressively built-up over several quarters: the original stake was doubled in Q1 2012, increased by over 50% in Q2 2012, 24% in Q4 2012, and an additional 16% in Q1 2013. There has been marginal buying since. The bulk of the stake build-up happened at prices between $30 and $49. The stock currently trades at around $81.48. In May 2013, Berkshire's Ted Weschler signed an accord with DVA, limiting open-market purchases to 25% of the company- the position is currently at 17.9% of the business.
DIRECTV (NASDAQ:DTV): DTV is a 2.49% position first purchased in Q3 2011. The bulk of the current stake was purchased in Q4 2011 at prices between $40.60 and $47.87. In Q2 2014, the position was reduced by around one-third at prices between $74 and $88.25. In Q3 2014, the pattern reversed: a ~28% stake increase at prices between $83.55 and $87.72 and that was followed with a ~5% increase last quarter at prices between $82.56 and $87.89. The stock currently trades at around $91.46. AT&T (NYSE:T) is in the process of acquiring DTV in a $95 per share cash-and-stock deal ($28.50 per share cash and the rest in stock protected with a collar).
General Motors (NYSE:GM): GM is a 1.44% of the US long portfolio position that was first purchased in Q1 2012 at prices between $21 and $30. The stake was increased by 60% in Q2 2013 at prices between $27.53 and $35.03. Q1 2014 saw a 25% reduction at prices between $34 and $41 and in the following quarter there was an about-turn: 9.86% increase at prices between $31.93 and $37.09. Q3 2014 saw another ~21% increase at prices between $31.94 and $37.97 and last quarter saw a marginal increase. The stock currently trades at $34.91.
American Express (NYSE:AXP), Coca-Cola, and Procter & Gamble (NYSE:PG): These are very large stakes that were kept steady during the last two years. Buffett has said these positions will be held "permanently". Berkshire's cost-basis on AXP, KO, and PG are at around $8.49, $3.25, and $6.40 and ownership stakes are at 14.8%, 9.2%, and 1.9% respectively.
Chicago Bridge & Iron (NYSE:CBI): CBI is a 0.57% of the US long portfolio position that was increased by 47% in Q2 2013 at prices between $50.92 and $63.75. Last quarter saw a 12% stake increase at prices between $65.51 and $87.65. The original position was purchased in Q1 2013 at prices between $46 and $62. The stock currently trades at $55.01. Berkshire controls 9.9% of the business. For investors attempting to follow Berkshire, CBI is a good option to consider for further research.
Goldman Sachs (NYSE:GS): GS is 2.22% of the US long portfolio stake established in Q4 2013. Berkshire Hathaway received $5B worth of warrants to buy GS stock during the financial crisis (October 2008) at a strike price of $115 (43.5M shares) that was to expire October 1, 2013. Buffett exercised the right before expiry to start this long position. GS currently trades at $203.
Liberty Media (NASDAQ:LMCA) (NASDAQ:LMCK): LMCA is a petite 0.43% stake first purchased in Q4 2011. It was increased by ~75% in Q1 2012 and roughly doubled the next quarter. Q2 2014 saw a ~24% stake reduction and since then has been kept steady.
Moody's Inc. (NYSE:MCO): MCO is a 2.39% of the US long portfolio stake that was decreased by 14% in Q2 2013 at prices between $52.23 and $68.62. The stock currently trades at $110. Buffett's cost basis is ~$10 and so he is sitting on large long-term gains on the ten-bagger. The stock returned around 48% in 2013, 23% in 2014, and another ~13% so far this year. Berkshire controls 11.5% of the business.
USG Corporation (NYSE:USG): USG is a very long-term holding and there was a significant 21.39M share stake increase in Q4 2013 due to conversion of notes at $11.40 per share - Berkshire acquired the convertible notes during the financial crisis (2/2009) and USG opted to redeem them on 12/16/2013. Q2 2014 saw a ~11.5% stake increase at prices between $29.57 and $33.16. The stock currently trades at $28.10. Buffett controls around 27% of the business and overall cost-basis is at around $19.
VeriSign Inc. (NASDAQ:VRSN): VRSN was first purchased in Q4 2012 at prices between $34.15 and $49.48. The position was more than doubled in Q1 2013 at prices between $38 and $48 and another one-third the following quarter at prices between $44.39 and $49.27. Q1 & Q2 2014 also saw a combined ~17% increase at prices between $47 and $63. The stock currently trades at $64.09. The current position is at ~10% of the business although as a percentage of the portfolio the stake is still very small at 0.81%.
Verizon Communications (NYSE:VZ): VZ is a small 0.68% of the US long portfolio position established in Q1 2014 at prices between $46 and $49.30. It was increased by ~36% the following quarter at prices between $45.94 and $50.05. The stock currently trades at $49.79.
Wal-Mart Stores (NYSE:WMT): WMT stake was first purchased in 2005. It has since been built up to a 4.64% position (top-five stake). The position was increased by 4% in Q1 2013 at prices between $68 and $75 and another 17% in Q1 2014 at prices between $72.66 and $78.91. The stock currently trades at $79.24. Berkshire's cost-basis on the position is at around $56.
Costco Wholesale (NASDAQ:COST), General Electric (NYSE:GE), Graham Holdings (NYSE:GHC), Johnson & Johnson (NYSE:JNJ), Kraft Foods Group (NASDAQ:KRFT), Lee Enterprises (NYSE:LEE), M&T Bank (NYSE:MTB), Media General (NYSE:MEG), Mondelez International (NASDAQ:MDLZ), NOW Inc. (NYSE:DNOW), Sanofi (NYSE:SNY), Torchmark Corporation (NYSE:TMK), United Parcel Service (NYSE:UPS), Verisk Analytics (NASDAQ:VRSK), : These are minutely small positions (less than ~0.5% of the portfolio each) kept steady this quarter. Although the relative size of the position is small, it should be noted that Berkshire controls 3.6% of Media General. The DNOW position was established in Q2 2014 as a result of National Oilwell Varco's spin-off of its distribution business. Also, per the annual report, Berkshire has a $2.03B position in Sanofi - so in addition to the 13F securities listed in the spreadsheet, Berkshire also owns Sanofi securities listed in Euronext Paris. The only other large non-US individual stock position reported in the AR is Munich RE at $4B (11.8% of the business).
Note: Tesco plc (OTCPK:TSCDY) was another position listed in the 2013 annual report. Berkshire liquidated that stake in 2014: sold 301M shares and realized $444M in losses.

Is McDonald's Losing Its Economic Castle?




















Summary

  • Is there really much to like about McDonald's anymore?
  • Let's walk through its challenges, and whether it means the company's Economic Castle is deteriorating.
  • We give our high-level thoughts on the turnaround plan and disclose our fair value estimate of shares.
  • We also have some interesting ideas at the end of the article that many may be overlooking.
What in the world is an Economic Castle?

Berkshire Hathaway's Warren Buffett has popularized the concept of an "economic moat," perhaps best described in common language as sustainable competitive advantages. But an Economic Castle? Are we just confused?

In short, no.

Whereas economic moat analysis focuses on the duration of a company's economic profit stream, as measured by return on invested capital less the costs of which to attain that capital, economic castle analysis focuses on the magnitude of economic profit creation over the realizable near term.

Unlike the substantial duration risk inherent to predicting economic profits 20, 30 or more years into the future, the economic castle framework posits that the strongest performing companies during certain phases of the economic cycle will be those that generate the most economic value over the foreseeable future.


Sunday, May 17, 2015

Warren Buffett’s Best Advice for 2015. Essentially a good review of and reliving the post 2008 GFC.






Published on 26 Dec 2014
Warren Buffett’s Best Advice for 2015

Warren Buffett says:

“My advice to the trustee could not be more simple: Put 10% of the cash in short-term government bonds and 90% in a very low-cost S&P 500 index fund. (I suggest Vanguard’s.) I believe the trust’s long-term results from this policy will be superior to those attained by most investors — whether pension funds, institutions or individuals — who employ high-fee managers.”



Comment:

Listening to this video gives you a good review of financial crisis and stock market volatilities post-2008 GFC.  The video is a collection of live interviews of Buffett during this period and gives a good review of the unfolding crisis with Buffett's live responses to the crisis as it unfolded.

Were you frightened out of the market or you embraced the market during this period?

Warren Buffett shared his thinking of the stock market and other asset classes during this crisis period generously, and today, in 2015, his approach and philosophy are sound, safe and first class;  proven to be absolutely right and rewarding.

A lot of great lessons to learn in this video.


For those looking at buying first single family home, here was Buffett's advice in 2012.
This was the best time for you to buy.   Maybe different in 5 years from then.
Certain conditions need to be fulfilled:
- you should know where you are going to live.
- you must have a reasonable income.
- single family home can be bought with a 30 years mortgage at low interest rates of 4%.

Don't buy:
- if you are going to move in 6 months time.
- if you are uncertain about your job situation.

These are simple and common sense first class advice from Buffett.

Buffett is optimistic that single family homes will double in value over a very short period during his interview.
He is tempted to do this business but it would be extremely difficult to manage so many single units of homes and also dealing with so many people with difficult behaviours.

(@1.40 of video)



Additional note:

For those who are in their 50s or more, you may ponder over this particular fact.  Buffett first invested in shares at the age of 11 years old.  His present networth is about $70 billion.   1% of his wealth were acquired in the first 50 years of his life; the other 99% after his 50th birthday.

Once you have your initial capital and is on the growth path, the power and magic of compounding over many years can do wonders.

Always buy income generating assets as they will definitely beat any non-income generating assets over the long term and less subjective to prices offered and set by another based on sentiment (speculating).



Buffett:  When the market is down, I'm happier buying


Buffett:  Stock market, generally, is best place to have money





Warren Buffett started investing at 11yo and he regrets not starting earlier!!! What is also not widely known is that he made 95% of his money after the age of 65 years old!!! There is hope for us, old folks. Hahaha. But then again, we can't all be Warren Buffett.

Saturday, May 16, 2015

Your Cheat Sheet to Financial Professionals

  •   
  • By Henry Truc
  •  
What is a financial professional? The term loosely covers anyone that works in an industry dealing with, well, finance. This could be someone as prominent as a stock broker on Wall Street or someone as common as your local insurance agent or tax accountant. Knowing the area of expertise each one deals with will help you pinpoint the right hire to help you meet your financial goals. After all, you wouldn’t have your insurance representative do your taxes or your CPA accountant picking your stocks.
The following is a simple break down of five of the most common industry professionals working in finance. While some responsibilities do blend together and some professionals do double dip in expertise, this guide should help clarify where each professional fits in the world of finance.

Financial Planner

financial-planner
While their services vary widely, most financial planners review the whole of a client’s monetary situation and devise a strategy for accomplishing their savings, debt and investing goals. They also help serve as an investment manager to plan for major expenditures like retirement, college or a home purchase. They may make recommendations for investment products and services that will assist in achieving these milestones.
Credentials: The most common certification that designates a qualified financial planner is a CFP credential. In order to become a Certified Financial Planner, a person must hold a Bachelors degree, obtain at least three years of financial planning experience, complete a CFP Board-Registered Education Program and pass a three-part, 10-hour exam. Continuing education is required to maintain certification.
Skills:
  • Strong interpersonal skills
  • Sales ability
  • Familiarity with legal restrictions and laws regarding retirement plans, tax shelters, insurance and trusts
  • Understanding of complex mathematical concepts, budgets and financial and legal documents
What to Look for: There is no state or federal law that requires a person claiming to be a financial planner to actually be certified. For this reason, you should only hire a professional that has credentials and can provide references.
The CFP Board can be contacted regarding inquiries about particular individuals. In addition to receiving certification, qualified financial planners are registered with the SEC or the state securities commission where the business is located. You should also determine if your financial planner has taken a fiduciary oath to “to act in good faith and in the best interests of the client.” Financial planners are either compensated through fee-only or commission structures.

Financial Analyst

Businessman Diagramming Economics
Financial analysts are also known as security analysts or investment analysts. They work for banks, insurance companies, securities firms and other institutions examining financial data to help a company and their clients make investment decisions. The primary duty of most financial analysts is to perform extensive research, write reports and create presentations based on these results to aid in determining the value and appropriate action on investments.
Credentials: It’s recommended that analysts obtain a Masters degree in business administration (MBA) in addition to their Bachelors degree. Analysts may also receive certification by the CFA Institute in the form of a Chartered Financial Analyst designation.
In addition to holding a degree, Chartered Financial Analyst candidates are required to pass three exams that cover topics like accounting, economics and security analysis, and have four years of qualified, professional work experience. CFA charterholders are also obligated to adhere to a strict Code of Ethics and Standards.
Skills:
  • Analytical, mathematical and problem-solving skills
  • Advanced knowledge of statistical software and spreadsheets
  • Ability to communicate complex financial ideas simply
  • Motivated to seek out obscure information
  • Possesses in-depth knowledge of the economy, tax laws and markets
What to Look For: Financial analysts are generally employed by institutions rather than individual investors, but you may still be interested in who is making recommendations for your portfolio within a firm. The combination of education, experience and success record will determine how qualified a particular analyst is and a designation as a CFA is seen as a key certification for financial analysts.

Accountant

accountant
Accountants keep track of money. Most have a specialty: Public accountants work for public accounting companies and do accounting, auditing, tax and consulting work. Management accountants keep track of the money earned and spent by the companies they are employed with. Government accountants ensure sure that government accounting records are correct and review the records of people doing business with the government. You can also find individual accountants to help you with your money records and taxes.
Credentials: A Bachelors degree in accounting is usually the minimum education requirement. Masters degrees in accounting or business with a concentration in accounting are also available. Any accountant that files a report with the Securities and Exchange Commission must be credentialed as a Certified Public Accountant. Obtaining certification as a CPA requires (in 46 states) completion of an extra 30 hours of related undergraduate college coursework.
Skills:
  • Knowledge of finance, accounting, budgeting and cost control principles
  • Proficiency with financial and accounting software
  • Extensive knowledge of federal and state financial regulations
  • Ability to analyze financial data and communicate effectively through financial reports, statements and projections
What to Look For: It is not necessary for an accountant to be certified, so any additional professional designation is demonstrative of advanced knowledge in their field. A CPA is probably the most well-known designation, yet many other special certifications may be obtained by accountants depending upon their particular focus. One such example is the Certified Management Accountant title conferred by The Institute of Management Accountants.

Stockbroker

stock-broker
Stockbrokers work privately or for stock brokerage houses. They seek out and assist retail clients, including both corporations and individuals, in determining the best investments based on their interpretation of financial data provided by analysts. They then facilitate the transaction on the client’s behalf. Additionally, stockbrokers develop investment plans for clients, maintain records, monitor transactions and review financial reports.
Credentials: While a college degree is not necessarily required, most stockbrokers have one. Many also pursue MBAs, especially for high-level positions. It is required that they are licensed by passing the General Securities Registered Representative Examination, also known as the Series 7. Many states require stockbrokers to pass the Uniform Securities Agents State Law Examination as well.
Skills:
  • Excellent interpersonal and communication skills
  • Ability to identify market trends and how they affect investments like stocks or bonds
  • Comprehensive understanding of financial health of investments, balance sheets, P/E ratios, etc.
  • Recognition skills of unique investment opportunities
What to Look For: Personal qualities and skills are often considered to be even more important than academic training. The track record of the stockbroker is also important. Since they are often entrusted with large sums of money and sensitive information, it is especially important that you trust your stockbroker. Like a financial advisor, you need to determine whether their motivations are dictated by their commission structure or helping you build wealth.

Insurance Agent

insurance-agent
Insurance agents are generally the first point of contact between an individual, family or business and an insurance company. They specialize in one or several types of insurance, including life insurance, health insurance and property or home insurance. Insurance agents search for new clients and assist them in selecting an insurance policy. Captive agents work on the behalf of a single company while insurance brokers match the best policy with their client among several insurance companies they represent.
Credentials: The most important aspect of being an insurance agent is sales. Some insurance agents only have a high school education with a proven ability in sales while others obtain a college degree in business, economics or finance. A few schools offer specific Bachelors degrees in the field of insurance. Insurance agents learn most of their skills by shadowing other agents, however. Additionally, most states mandate licensure and ongoing education every two years.
Skills:
  • Sales expertise
  • Specialized knowledge of particular insurance type
  • Aptitude for explaining highly technical concepts
  • Ability and desire to stay up-to-date on constantly changing industry and coverage policies
What to Look For: All agents are required to be licensed to sell insurance in whatever state(s) they work. Separate licenses are needed for every type of insurance policy being sold. Most states require that an agent complete coursework and pass an examination before receiving a license. Be sure that any insurance agent you work with holds a license in their particular field, whether it be life, health, auto, property insurance, etc. Agents may also receive additional certification or professional designations by organizations such as The National Alliance for Insurance Education and Research.
You can cut down on a lot of confusion and wasted time by going straight to the professional who meets your financial needs. By above guide to match the appropriate person with what you’re looking for, you should have a good start in finding a qualified industry professional.


http://www.gobankingrates.com/personal-finance/your-cheat-sheet-financial-professionals/

5 Secrets to Investing Success from Warren Buffett’s Annual Meeting

At the recent meeting, Buffett cited the factors that contributed to his success.

My trip to Omaha this past weekend meant only one thing, a chance to listen and learn from two of the greatest investors of all time: Warren Buffett and his second in command, Charlie Munger.
Over five hours, the two fielded questions from shareholders on matters ranging from the state of Berkshire Hathaway to the German economy. But one question really grabbed my attention: What has allowed you to become such a successful investor?
In response, Buffett cited the five most important factors that contributed to his success.

1. “Enjoy the game”

Practice makes perfect, and the simple truth is that you’re more likely to practice what you love. As Buffett said, he has always been interested in investing — in fact, he bought his first stock at age 11.

2. “A great teacher”
The enthusiasm Buffett brings to the company’s annual meeting, and his obvious joy in educating others, makes it clear that 73 years later he still has great passion for investing.
Buffett had the first ingredient down pat, but he didn’t have a clear strategy. That began to take form after he read The Intelligent Investor for the first time in 1949. Buffett eventually attended Columbia Business School where he trained under the legendary value investor, and author of the The Intelligent Investor, Ben Graham.
Buffett’s investment philosophy has developed over time, but one major brushstroke hasn’t, and it is a Graham adage he shared in his 2013 letter to shareholders: “Price is what you pay, value is what you get.”
We can’t all go to Columbia, but we do have access to books written about or by legendary investors, and the opportunity to seek out intelligent people to learn from.

3. “It requires a certain emotional stability.”

Buffett and Munger are extraordinarily rational. They understand prices will rise and fall, and view falling stock prices as an opportunity to buy great businesses for less.
Theoretically, this isn’t difficult to grasp. If the same thing can be purchased at a lower cost, it’s a better deal. Yet when the stock market tumbles, it can be difficult not to panic and sell out.
Munger suggested we should all “avoid being a perfect idiot” in such situations. Which is about the best advice anyone can receive.

4. “Exceptional focus”

In a 2013 article by the Omaha World-Herald, Berkshire investment manager Todd Combs remembered Buffett coming into one of his classes at Columbia. Buffett was asked how the students could prepare for a career in investing. He grabbed a stack of pages of reports and other documents, and replied:
Read 500 pages like this every day. … That’s how knowledge works. It builds up, like compound interest. All of you can do it, but I guarantee not many of you will do it.
If the reading alone doesn’t prove Buffett’s focus, he suggested in his 1993 letter to shareholders, “Indeed, we’ll now settle for one good idea a year.” One big idea and 182,500 pages of reading per year. That’s focus.

5. “Keep yourself open to good accidents.”

Buffett was asked if he went back in time, could he recreate Berkshire Hathaway? He replied that the “odds are against it.” Mainly, he suggested, because he had experienced much good luck.
For instance, despite both growing up in Omaha, Buffett and Munger were introduced through a mutual contact when Buffett was in his late 20s and Munger in his mid-30s. Flash-forward more than 50 years, and in his 2014 letter to shareholders, Buffett credited Munger as the architect of Berkshire Hathaway: “The blueprint he gave me was simple: Forget what you know about buying fair businesses at wonderful prices; instead, buy wonderful businesses at fair prices.”
The two men’s introduction might have been fortuitous, but turning a meeting into a lifelong partnership is the ultimate example of being “open to good accidents.”

Bonus: “made some of that luck by being curious” — Charlie Munger

Buffett noted that he was also lucky to have accidentally met Lorimer Davidson in 1951. Davidson, who was named CEO of GEICO in 1958, spent four hours educating Buffett on the insurance industry during their chance meeting.
What Buffett did not mention was that his curiosity about GEICO encouraged him to hop on a train from Washington, D.C. to Maryland and visit the company. It was closed. Unfazed, Buffett pounded on the door until the custodian showed up and pointed him toward Davidson. After the meeting, Buffett began buying shares of GEICO and eventually purchased the company in 1995.
As Munger explained, he and Buffett are “dissatisfied with what they know,” and their curiosity forces them to continue learning and adapting. This has helped them — and can help you — create some of their own luck.