## Friday, 16 December 2016

### Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC)

Cash Conversion cycle is the time taken by a trading or manufacturing concern to realise cash from its inventory and account receivables after meeting its outflows owing to short term payables including trade creditors.
It is expressed in terms of number of days and can be defined as follows in form of a formula:-
CCC= Days’ Inventory Outstanding (DIO) + Days’ Sale Outstanding (DSO) – Days’ Purchase Outstanding (DPO)

Components of Cash Conversion Cycle - DIO, DSO and DPO

### Days’ Sale Outstanding (DSO)

DSO is the measure to assess the number of days a concern gives credit to its customers. Let us explain it with a formula:
DSO= Average receivables/ daily sale
Where
Average receivables: Opening balance + Closing Balance/2
Daily sales: Total annual sale/365
DSO can be calculated for every month as well. In fact when there is a revamp of credit terms then DSO should be computed for every month to understand the implication and drop or hike in DSO, as the case may be.

### Days’ Purchase Outstanding (DPO)

DPO gives average credit term (days of credit) enjoyed by a concern from its trade creditors. In term of formula, it can be stated as follows:
DPO= Average payables/ Daily purchases
Where,
Average payables= Opening balance+ Closing Balance/2
Daily purchases= Total purchases/365
Just like DSO, DPO can also be computed monthly or any period of time as required.

### Importance and usage of DSO and DPO

Now that we have discussed the meaning of DSO and DPO, let us understand their implication on a business and cash conversion cycle.

Ideally, every trading concern must try to have a bigger DPO and smaller DSO, which essentially implies that they recover cash from debtors in shorter duration and pay off their creditors later.

For e.g. ABC Company has a DSO of 30 days and DPO of 40. This gives an advantage of 10 extra days to ABC Company to meet its payables and it enjoys healthy liquidity to meet its other production and day to day expenses as well.

DSO comparisons also help in effective credit control. If without any re-negotiations, a company observes that its DSO has risen then it means that the collection process is not working well. This situation can be rectified in many ways including putting processes like advance reminders and water tight system of invoicing in place for the starters. If a company has indeed renegotiated terms with both debtors and creditors, then the month on month DSO and DPO comparisons would show the result in line with such re-negotiations.

### Days’ Inventory Outstanding (DIO)

The third pillar of CCC deals with inventory. DIO is the average days a trading concern takes to convert its inventory into sale and is stated as follows:
DIO= Average Inventory/ Day’s Cost of goods sold
Where,
Average inventory= Opening Balance + Closing Balance/2
Day’s cost of goods Sold (COGS)= Cost of goods sold/365
If the accounting period for which DIO is to be computed is shorter, then day’s COGS will be computed for such other period and 365 days will get replaced accordingly.