Benjamin Graham and David Dodd chided Wall Street for its myopic focus on a company's reported earnings per share (eps), and were particularly harsh on the favored "earnings trends." They encouraged investors to take an entirely different approach by estimating the rough value of the operating business that lay behind the security. They have given actual examples of the market's tendency to irrationally under-value certain out-of-favor stocks.
The book is must read for any Stock Market Investor, fundamental analyst or equity research professional.
A. INVESTMENT FOR FIXED INCOME:
US Savings Bonds (FDs)
B. INVESTMENT FOR INCOME, MODERATE LONG-TERM APPRECIATION AND PROTECTION AGAINST INFLATION:
(1) INVESTMENT FUNDS bought at reasonable price.
(2) Diversified list of primary common stocks (BLUE CHIPS) bought at reasonable price.
C. INVESTMENT CHIEFLY FOR PROFIT: 4 approaches are open to both the small and the large investors:
(1) Representative common stocks bought when the MARKET level is clearly LOW.
(2) GROWTH STOCKS, when these can be obtained at reasonable prices in relation to actual accomplishment – GROWTH INVESTING.
(3) Purchase of securities selling well BELOW INTRINSIC VALUE – VALUE INVESTING.
(4) Purchase of WELL-SECURED PRIVILEGED SENIOR ISSUES (bonds and preferred shares).
(5) SPECIAL SITUATIONS: Mergers, arbitrages, cash pay-outs.
(1) Buying stock in new or virtually new ventures (IPOs) .(2) TRADING in the market.
(3) Purchase of "GROWTH STOCKS" at GENEROUS PRICES.
For DEFENSIVE INVESTORS: Portfolio A & B
(Portfolio A: Cash, FDs, Bonds Portfolio B: Mutual funds, Blue chips)
For ENTERPRISING INVESTORS: Portfolio A & B & C
(Portfolio C: Buy in Low Market, Buy Growth stocks at fair value, Buy value stocks i.e. bargains, High grade bonds and preferred shares, Arbitrages)
For SPECULATORS: Portfolio D
(Should set aside a sum for this separate from their money in investing.)
Types of Investors
Graham felt that individual investors fell into two camps : "defensive" investorsand "aggressive" or "enterprising" investors.
These two groups are distinguished not by the amount of risk they are willing to take, but rather by the amount of "intelligent effort" they are "willing and able to bring to bear on the task."
Thus, for instance, he included in the defensive investor category professionals (his example--a doctor) unable to devote much time to the process and young investors (his example--a sharp young executive interested in finance) who are as-yet unfamiliar and inexperienced with investing.
Graham felt that the defensive investor should confine his holdings to the shares of important companies with a long record of profitable operations and that are in strong financial condition. By "important," he meant one of substantial size and with a leading position in the industry, ranking among the first quarter or first third in size within its industry group.
Aggressive investors, Graham felt, could expand their universe substantially,but purchases should be attractively priced as established by intelligent analysis. He also suggested that aggressive investors avoid new issues.
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